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中国早期国家的崩溃——以陶寺和二里头为例

【作者】张渭莲(河北师范大学历史文化学院)

内容摘要:

在国际学术界关于早期国家崩溃的研究已是一个相当热门的话题,但中国国内这方面的研究尚嫌欠缺。本文以晋南临汾盆地的陶寺和豫西伊洛河盆地的二里头为例,对中国早期国家的消亡历程与模式进行探索。

从现有证据看,陶寺中期和二里头二期先后进入了早期国家阶段,但这两个早期国家都没有延续下来。随着陶寺中期面积达280万平方米的城址、宫殿区、大型建筑和墓葬的毁弃,陶寺国家彻底消失。二里头国家在存在了200多年后也发生了同样的变动:宫城城墙和大型宫殿被毁,带有围垣设施的手工业作坊亦被弃,聚落人口锐减。

陶寺和二里头国家之所以走向破灭之路,与统治者毫无节制地修筑大型建筑和过度追求奢侈品的享受有关。当社会内部的矛盾极度激化,国家政治机构的运转出现困难之时,陶寺国家内部的反对派发动了武装叛变,二里头国家则受到属于另一文化的外来势力的攻击,从而导致了这两个早期国家的崩溃。

陶寺国家消亡后,社会组织重又回到了简单的酋邦阶段,二里头国家则成为其征服者二里岗国家的殖民地。

关键词:早期国家,酋邦,殖民地,崩溃

(张渭莲:《中国早期国家的崩溃——以陶寺和二里头为例》,原发表于韩国中国史学会编《中国史研究》62辑,2009年10月。)

The Collapse of Chinese Early States: The Cases of Taosi and Erlitou

Abstract: The study of early states has become a focus in the foreign academic circle, but it has not been paid enough attention in our country. The article is to explore the collapse process and model of Chinese early states by examing tow cases of Taosi[陶寺] and Erlitou[二里头], which lie in the Linfen Basin of Southen Shanxi[山西] Province (for short, Jinnan[晋南]) and the Yiluo River Basin of Western Henan Province (for short, Yuxi[豫西]) respectively.

According to the available evidence now, the mid-term of Taosi Culture and the second term of Erlitou Culture belonged to the stage of early state. But these two early states have not persisted up to the present. The Taosi Sate disappeared completely as the city, palace, huge building and tomb zone of 280,000,000 squared meters became deserted in the mid-term of Taosi Culture. The same happened to the Erlitou state when it had existed for 200 years: the wall of palace and great palace were destructed, the handicraft workshops with surrounding walls were deserted, and the population decreased sharply.

The collapse of Taosi and Erlitou States are due to the fact that their rulers built too many great buildings and made too luxurious livings. When the social conflict became extremely serious and the political machine of state did not work well, the opponents of Taosi State revolted from inside and Erlitou State was attacted from outside, which led to the collapse of the two early states.

As far as Taosi was concerned, its social organizaztion degenerated into the simple chiefdom form after its demise. At the same time, Erlitou State became a colony of its suzerain Erligang[二里岗] State which had conquered it.

Key words: early state, chiefdom, colony, collapse

【文章下载】

张渭莲2010年4月17日中国早期国家的崩溃——以陶寺和二里头为例.doc

共 2 条评论 | 现在就去评论

  1. 王小二 TT Explorer Windows XP

    毫无新意的文章!

  2. 刘大鹏 Internet Explorer 6.0 Windows XP

    我们可以构建一种文明的崩溃模式:1.外部压力;2.内部压力。前者包括来自外部社群的军事压迫和自然环境的压迫。后者就是社群内部的政治矛盾:对权力和财产的无限欲望的满足。文明的崩溃一般来看都是内外崩溃压力共同作用的结果。张渭莲先生这篇文章很好!

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